Hip Dysplasia (HD)

What is hip dysplasia?

Hip dysplasia is a condition where the hip joint does not develop correctly. As the dog gets older, the joint undergoes wear and tear and the joint deteriorates, leading to a loss of function. This can cause varying degrees of pain, discomfort, stiffness and lameness.

How is hip dysplasia inherited?

Hip dysplasia is a complex inherited disorder, which is influenced by a number of different genes and by several environmental factors (e.g. diet, exercise or factors when in the womb before birth etc.). Each of the genes that help to make a dog’s hips may have different possible versions. Some versions increase the risk of hip dysplasia, while others decrease the risk. Each dog will have a mix of these “good” and “bad” versions of genes, making it very difficult to predict to what extent a dog will be affected. The impact one version of a gene has might only be slight, but lots of genes having a small influence will have a combined additive effect. The way in which these conditions are inherited is not straight forward; hence the name complex inherited disorders. These complex diseases are usually seen across many different breeds and are also described in both cross breeds and mixed breeds.

HD results

Excellent A-1 0-4 (no > 3/hip)
Good A-2 5-10 (no > 6/hip)
Fair B-1 11-18
Borderline B-2 19-25
Mild C 26-35
Moderate D 36-50
Severe E 51-106

PennHIP screening (for hip-dysplasia)

The PennHIP test measures joint laxity and can be done at 6 months of age. There is no pass or fail however the results are fairly explanatory and come with a recommendation. The median will always move but we should aim at keeping in the higher percentile (i.e. above the median) and take heed of the recommendations given regards breeding.

More info can be found here: https://antechimagingservices.com/antechweb/pdf/AIS_PennHIP_Brochure_2015.pdf

Older Terms

Classi-fication Classi-fication Country - Land





United States
A1 No signs of hip dysplasia

Kein Hinweis für HD
Ei-dysplasiaa "hyvat" Negateif geheel gaaf (1) Kein Hinweis für HD Utmärkt Frei Excellent
A2 Ei-dysplasiaa Negatief geheel gaaf (2) U.A. Good
B1 Transitional Case

Übergangs-form (verdächtig für HD)
Rajatapaus Transitional case
Übergangs-form (verdächtig für HD) Fair
B2 I I Borderline
C1 Mild
Leichte HD
I Licht positief (3) Leichte HD Mild Dysplastic
D1 Moderate
Mittlere HD
II Positief
(3 1/2)
Mittlere HD II II Moderate Dysplastic
D2 Positief (4)
E1 Severe
Schwere HD
III Schwere HD III III Severe Dysplastic
E2 IV Positief optima forma (5) IV